In the 1960s, moderate Unionist Prime Minister Terence O`Neill (then Lord O`Neill of the Maine) attempted to introduce reforms, but faced strong opposition from Protestant fundamentalist leaders such as Ian Paisley and his own party. Increasing pressure from Irish nationalists on reforms and opposition from Ulster loyalists to compromises led to the emergence of the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association among figures such as Austin Currie and John Hume. He had moderate Protestant support and membership and a considerable dose of student radicalism after Northern Ireland was flooded in the global protests of 1968. Clashes between the protesters and the RUC led to an intensification of communal clashes, culminating in an attack on 4 January 1969 by a union mob (including police reservists) on a march known as the Burntollet Bridge Incident outside Derry. On 12 August 1969, a march of apprentices through the Irish nationalist bogside region of Derry was driven out by the RUC, provoking a great agitation known as the Battle of Bogside. The riots continued until 14 August and during this period, 1,091 cans of 12.5 g of CS gas each and 14 50g cans were released by the RUC. Even more serious riots broke out in Belfast and elsewhere in response to the events in Derry (see the August 1969 riots in Northern Ireland). The next thirty years of the civil war were known as ”the troubles”. 26 With regard to the protection of human rights and minorities, the Good Friday Agreement obliges the British Government to complete the integration of the ECHR into Northern Ireland law, a process that the Labour government has already committed to carry out throughout the United Kingdom. This ended with the entry into force of the British Human Rights Act in 1998, on 2 October 2000. In addition, the Northern Ireland Act of 1998 contains a provision that requires each authority to discriminate against persons or the uses of persons on the basis of religious beliefs or political opinions.

The UK government also approved the creation of a human rights commission in Northern Ireland, which would advise the Foreign Secretary on how to obtain a rights bulletin for Northern Ireland. The Good Friday Agreement provides for mainstreaming as a predominant legal approach to the problem of equality, providing for the legal obligation for governments to control all their tasks with due consideration for the need to promote equality of opportunity (see Section 75 Northern Ireland Act 1998) and the creation of a single equal opportunity commission for the monitoring of respect for equality and equality between communities. It also provides for the revision and revision of the police and the penal code, which have long been accused of bias and bias by the nationalist community. 27 The Good Friday Agreement obliges the Irish government to take similar measures to further strengthen the protection of human rights in its jurisdiction, including the continuation of the review of the integration of the ECHR into domestic law, the creation of a human rights commission with a mandate equivalent to that of Northern Ireland (mandates), the ratification of the Council of Europe Framework Convention (`COE`) on the protection of national minorities. , and the promotion of equal opportunities legislation on employment and equal status. In line with its commitments, Ireland ratified the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in 1999 and adopted the ECHR in domestic law on 1 January 2004, including the first, fourth, sixth and seventh.