On November 4, 2019, the United States informed the custodian of its withdrawal from the agreement, which will take effect exactly one year after that date.  The signing of the agreement required countries to subsequently adopt the agreement through ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, within the framework of their own legal systems. The agreement would enter into force if ratified by at least 55 countries, which together accounted for at least 55% of global emissions. ”The Paris Agreement is generally seen as a starting point in the development of the international climate change regime under the UNFCCC. The agreement is a comprehensive framework that will guide international efforts to limit greenhouse gas emissions and address all challenges related to climate change. It marks the pace of change towards low-carbon development from 2020, thanks to country commitments in ambitious national plans called Nationally Determined Contributions. The main objective of the agreement was to limit the increase in global temperature to a level well below two degrees Celsius, while continuing efforts to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees. Recognition of the 1.5-C target has been at the heart of climate change for South Africa as a country at risk of Africa and development. The Paris Agreement is an agreement within the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that deals with the reduction, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions from 2020. The agreement aims to address the threat of global climate change by keeping global temperatures well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels this century and to continue efforts to further limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius.  ”South Africa is already acting against climate change. The country is investing heavily in renewable energy, public transport, energy efficiency, waste management and soil rehabilitation initiatives.
On June 1, 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump announced that the United States would withdraw from the agreement.  Under Article 28, the effective withdrawal date of the United States is the fastest possible date, given that the agreement entered into force in the United States on November 4, 2016. If it had decided to withdraw from the UNFCCC, it could be informed immediately (the UNFCCC came into force in 1994 for the United States) and come into force a year later. On August 4, 2017, the Trump administration officially announced to the United Nations that the United States intends to withdraw from the Paris Agreement as soon as it has a legal right to do so.  The formal declaration of resignation could only be submitted after three years of implementation of the agreement for the United States in 2019.   In April 2017, of the 143 countries that have ratified the agreement, 33 are located in Africa, including Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Kenya, Nigeria, Somalia, Tunisia, Uganda and Zambia. This is 60% of the total number of African countries. Seven other states signed the Paris Agreement but did not ratify it. The language of the agreement was negotiated by representatives of 197 parties at the 21st UNFCCC Conference of the Parties in Paris and agreed on 12 December 2015.   The agreement was signed at UN Headquarters in New York from 22 April 2016 to 21 April 2017 by states and regional economic integration organisations parties to the UNFCCC (convention). The agreement stated that it would only enter into force if 55 countries that produce at least 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions (according to a list drawn up in 2015) ratify, accept, approve or adhere to the agreement.  On April 1, 2016, the United States and China, which together account for nearly 40% of global emissions, issued a joint statement confirming that the two countries would sign the Paris Climate Agreement.  175 contracting parties (174 states and the European Union) signed the agreement on the first day of its signing.   On the same day, more than 20 countries announced plans to join the accession as soon as possible in 2016.