It should also be remembered that many EU Member States, such as France, Spain and Germany, have, even without international protection, international instruments, national laws that respect the freedom of the parties to decide which courts must decide on their disputes, as is the case in English law. Companies that, either at the transaction stage or in the event of a dispute, will take into account compliance with an English jurisdiction clause in another jurisdiction in which an application can be invoked, should seek advice on the approach of that jurisdiction on the ground. As noted above, when an EU court has jurisdiction under the brussels regulation, there is some uncertainty as to the circumstances in which it may be without prejudice to the jurisdiction of the courts of non-EU countries, as the English court will be, unless the English procedure is initiated in the first place (since there is, in these circumstances, an explicit power within the meaning of Article 33/34 of the brussels regulation overhaul). The Northern Ireland Protocol, known as the Irish Backstop, was an annex to the November 2018 draft agreement outlining provisions to avoid a hard border in Ireland after the UK`s withdrawal from the European Union. The protocol provided for a provision of the safety net to deal with the circumstances in which satisfactory alternative arrangements were to come into force at the end of the transition period. This project has been replaced by a new protocol that will be described as follows. Many EU Member States also impose foreign judgments under national law, regardless of international agreements. This is the case in the United Kingdom, where it has long been possible to apply foreign judgments under the common law in the absence of a mutual application agreement, as is the case, for example, with the United States. However, this can lead to additional obstacles to the procedure and, therefore, delays and costs. In addition, in some legal systems, there may be more substantive implementation issues. Again, local legal advice, through the likely jurisdiction, can be essential for the application of legislation, both in the decision on dispute resolution rules and in formulating a process strategy, and we can provide or facilitate it.

The agreement defines the goods, services and processes associated with them. Any provision of goods or services legally put on the market before leaving the EU may be made available to consumers in the UK or in the EU Member States (Article 40-41). The most important elements of the draft agreement are:[21] When it comes to the law applicable to litigation, very little will change, even if the transitional provisions of the withdrawal agreement do not apply. The United Kingdom has adopted legislation to incorporate Rome I and Rome II into English law, in accordance with the law applicable to contractual and non-contractual obligations (modification, etc.). (withdrawal from the EU) Regulations 2019 (which come into force at the end of the transition period instead of the original withdrawal date) and the English court will therefore apply the same rules as currently to determine the applicable law. Of course, the EU courts will continue to apply Rome I and Rome II, so that a choice of English law is effective to the same extent as it is now, and Brexit will not affect the rules applied by arbitration tribunals and arbitration tribunals in non-EU countries. Companies that have not yet revised their existing dispute resolution provisions should do so now. Given the continuing uncertainty as to whether the United Kingdom`s accession to the Hague Convention will only help in cases where there are exclusive jurisdiction clauses before 1 January 2021, parties wishing to continue to invoke existing exclusive jurisdiction clauses should consider ”reprofiing” these clauses on or shortly after that date, perhaps through a complementary agreement.